A Little History of Online Schools
Online tests have been around since 1995 (!). Although personal computers were a rage during the ’90s, they were mainly used as an aid or as an email transceiver. The employers did not greet the students that took online degrees with an open heart.
Fake diplomas were popular – a student had to mail in a few hundred dollars, and they would receive a graduation certificate through the mail a few weeks later.
It took another decade before employers accepted online tests. In the early 2000s, leading scientists from Harvard, Stanford, and MIT started companies that provided Massive Open Online Courses. It worked at first and then suddenly they did not. Some examples of MOOCs are Coursera, HubSpot, and EdX.
Then there were open badges. Badges indicated specific skills or expertise, was linked to electronic evidence of how and why, exactly, the badge was earned by an individual.
Badges are provided by many institutions including but not limited to IBM, Mozilla, Acclaim, Illinois Online Network, Michigan State University, and Microsoft Educator Network.
Where We Stand Today
A lot of discussion goes on among students, professionals, and employers about the credibility of degrees earned through online education.
There are still so many employers who find a degree received by an online course a little unsettling.
We were discussing online proctoring services with one of our clients, and they said, “This is great! Because we often wonder about the authenticity of the test. What if they cheated?”
That said, we think online tests must be proctored. There are so many ways test-takers can cheat using a different device or a friend prompting answers!
What is Online Exam Proctoring?
In Online Exam Proctoring or Online Video Test Proctoring, a candidate is monitored online during the test duration typically with the help of a webcam, mic, and access to the screen of the candidate.
To take an online proctored test from a remote location candidates need:
- A suitable device (Desktop PC/Laptop/Tablet/Mobile)
- An Internet connection with at least 256kbps speed
- A functional webcam and a mic
- In PC/Laptop, any of the modern browsers
There Are Three Main Types of Proctoring:
1. Live Online Proctoring
In a live proctored test, a qualified proctor monitors the candidates, audio-video, and screen share feeds in real-time.
Typically, the proctoring service provider will have people sitting in a remote location who have been trained to ensure student authentication and prevent/red flag any form of cheating.
A proctor can monitor up to 16/32 candidates at a time depending on the provider. The advantage of this model is that it removes the location constraint of proctoring.
Disadvantages are that it still requires the exams to be scheduled and since there is equal human involvement as offline proctoring, it is not very scalable and is most expensive of all the types.
The test taker and proctor can be even thousands of miles apart. ProctorU is a leading provider in this model.
2. Recorded Proctoring
In this method, no proctor is monitoring the feed in real-time. Instead, the audio-video and screen share feeds of the test candidates are recorded during the test.
A representative plays back these recordings in a fast-forwarded way (3X to 20X speed) and red-flags any suspicious activity through annotations.
The advantages are that it eliminates both schedule and location constraints. However, it still requires humans to do the review, and hence it is not very scalable and is still expensive.
Software Secure or Remote Proctor Now follows this model.
3. Advanced Automated Proctoring
Automated proctoring is the most advanced form of proctoring. Here again, the audio-video and screen share feeds of the test candidates are recorded during the test.
But in addition to recording, the system also monitors the feeds for any suspicious activity using advanced video and audio analytics.
It ensures the candidate focuses on the test screen during the test; there is enough light in the room and checks for suspicious objects in video and background voice activity to red flag the test. It also uses face recognition to do student authentication.
The advantages are that it eliminates both schedule and location constraints. It also doesn’t require humans to do the review, and hence it is scalable and is more cost-effective.
Talview Advanced Automated Online Remote Proctoring is one of the leading providers. Talview also provides the other two options as add-ons for additional security.
Additional checks are available to make online proctored exams secure:
- Limit candidate logins to specific IP addresses.
- Blocking of copy-paste options
- Freezing the screen of device blocking candidate from accessing other applications or switching windows
Can Candidates Cheat During a Test Which Is Proctored Online?
There are blogs online which give candidates tips to trick many proctoring systems. But as these blogs convey candidates will have to resort to extreme measures and need elaborate preparation to trick the video proctoring system since the complete audio-visual recordings are available for cross verification at any point in time.
The majority of candidates will rather fall in line than try to do all this. Proctors involved are well trained and experienced to detect any hints of malpractice like candidate eye movement and body language.
The process followed during online proctoring includes asking the candidate to record a video of the surroundings and test machine setup. The systems are becoming more and more intelligent making it extremely difficult to cheat.
Reena Ghosh has done a detailed review of cheating and countermeasures in this article. Arkansas Tech University has done a paper on candidate behavior during online proctored exams.
What Do Candidates Think of Proctored Exams?
Candidates love convenience. Hence it is natural to think why should they take a day’s leave and travel to a test center when they can do it at the convenience of their homes at a suitable time.
There aren’t many studies available at present which have analyzed candidate feedback from proctored assessments.
Remote Proctored Exams on Mobile
Can Proctored Tests happen on Mobile Devices?
Talview is the only player who currently supports video proctoring in its candidate mobile app. The nature of mobile devices with the front camera makes it as foolproof as web-based tests with minimal checks and processes in place.
What Is the Future of Online Proctoring?
Remote proctoring tools are going to become the mainstay for online courses. It might soon impact other types of assessments too. The current trends include:
- Enhancing the test taker’s authentication by the use of biometric inputs from devices like smartwatches and fitness monitors.
- Smartwatches and fitness monitors may also be employed to detect changes in pulse and temperature and send such data to proctoring software to serve as malpractice cues.
- Facial recognition is already used by Talview to avoid impersonation. Keyboard behavior analysis is also in use. In the future, sound recognition and touchscreen behavior analysis might be utilized as additional checks.
- Head movement and position and illumination analysis are already in use by Talview for cheating. The tone of voice, facial expressions, etc. can be used in the future.
How Will It Change the Attitude about E-learning?
With the online proctoring in place, open badges, certificates, or diplomas need not be under any scrutiny. The certification is as good as any certificate received as a result of an on-premise test.
This will help a lot of professionals add certifications to their portfolio while they are working and also helps companies identify performers with a badge that can be authenticated without using too many resources. It’s a win-win.
*Part of this article appeared on Talview Blog.